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Lung Cancer

Updated: May 9

Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers and the leading cause of cancer death worldwide.

Risk Factors / Causes
Anatomy / Pathophysiology
Signs and Symptoms
Staging / Grading
Referral Criteria


[1] BMJ Best Practice. Non-small cell lung cancer. 2024 [Available from:

[2] Navani N, Baldwin DR, Edwards JG, Evison M, McDonald F, Nicholson AG, et al. Lung Cancer in the United Kingdom. Journal of Thoracic Oncology. 2022;17(2):186-93.

[4] Davidson MR, Gazdar AF, Clarke BE. The pivotal role of pathology in the management of lung cancer. J Thorac Dis. 2013;5 Suppl 5(Suppl 5):S463-78.

[5] Spiro SG, Gould MK, Colice GL. Initial Evaluation of the Patient With Lung Cancer: Symptoms, Signs, Laboratory Tests, and Paraneoplastic Syndromes: ACCP Evidenced-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines (2nd Edition). Chest. 2007;132(3, Supplement):149S-60S.

[6] BMJ Best Practice. Small cell lung cancer. 2024 [Available from:

[7] National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Lung cancer: diagnosis and management. 2024 [Available from:

[8] Detterbeck FC, Boffa DJ, Kim AW, Tanoue LT. The Eighth Edition Lung Cancer Stage Classification. Chest. 2017;151(1):193-203.

[9] National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. Lung and pleural cancers - recognition and referral 2021 [Available from:

[10] NHS England. Standard protocol prepared for the Targeted Lung Health Checks Programme 2022 [Available from:

[11] Cancer Research UK. Lung Health Checks 2024 [Available from:

Author: Ilse Trip

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